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Introduction: The rise and fall of Jim Crow juvenile justice -- Part I: The origins and organization of Jim Crow juvenile justice -- Citizen delinquent : race, liberal democracy, and the rehabilitative ideal -- No refuge under law : racialized foundations of juvenile justice reform -- Birth of a juvenile court -- The social organization of Jim Crow justice -- Part II: Rewriting the racial contract : the black child-saving movement -- Uplifting black citizens delinquent : the Vanguard movement, 1900-1930 -- Institutionalizing racial justice : the Black surrogate parental state, 1930-1965 -- The early spoils of integration -- Conclusion : the declining significance of inclusion -- Acknowledgements -- Notes -- Index.